GEOL 757 - Advanced Seismic Imaging and Tomography
J. Louie, 217 LME, 784-4219
||11:00-11:50 MWF LMR355
Learning Objectives: This course completes after
``a coherent overview of the
whole field of data processing as it is used in petroleum exploration,''
(Claerbout, 1985) and is the most advanced course in seismic exploration at
the University of Nevada. The course goes beyond the two texts by including
introductions to tomography and finite-difference modeling developed by
Profs. Robert W. Clayton and John E. Vidale, and material on Kirchhoff
migration from Prof. John Louie.
Further objectives from Claerbout (1985):
``As it happens, waves are marvelously geometrical objects, and much can be learned with little mathematical analysis. But you should begin the book having previous familiarity with calculus, complex exponentials, and Fourier transformation.
``Your knowledge won't be complete if you don't know some opinions as well as the facts. You will be getting opinions as well as facts when I explain the discrepancies between theory and industrial practice, and when I explain what should work but doesn't seem to.
``Prospecting for oil begins with seismic soundings. The echoes are processed by computer into images that reveal much geological history. Worldwide, echo sounding and image making constitute about a four-billion-dollar-per-year activity.
``... the skills developed in this book, computer implementations of concepts from physics, will always be of general utility.''
Lectures: Three 50-minute lectures each week. See also
the schedule below.
- Jon Claerbout, 1992, Earth Soundings Analysis: Processing
versus Inversion (PVI), Blackwell, ISBN #0-86542-210-9, out of print.
Available from the instructor and in the DeLaMare Library.
Read the text
on-line at Stanford (or in DVI format for your LaTeX reader
if you are logged into the Seismology Sun system).
Here is a 4 Mb PDF version built by the author in 2006.
- Jon Claerbout, 1985, Imaging the Earth's Interior (IEI), Blackwell,
ISBN #0-86542-304-0, out of print.
Available from the instructor and in the DeLaMare Library.
on-line at Stanford; or download your own copy in PDF format,
in parts through pages:
(up to 1.7 Mb each).
- Jon Claerbout, 1999, Geophysical Estimation By Example (GEE), Free.
on-line from Stanford; some sections in in a directory
of PDF files on the Seismo server.
The lecture notes will be available prior to each lecture for you to copy.
Grading: Student Lectures 50%; Term Projects 50%
I encourage any student needing to request accommodations for a specific disability to please meet with me at your earliest convenience to ensure timely and appropriate accommodations.
Original, individual projects are required and should be selected in
consultation with the instructor.
Student lecture topics will be linked to the projects.
Possible projects vary widely and can take the form of literature reviews,
theoretical demonstrations, application development, or data analysis.
For each project the student should turn in a five to ten page
project report, plus figures and an abstract, that properly reviews and
cites appropriate background literature, fully describes the methods, presents
the project results, and discusses their applicability and significance.
See the instructor for project suggestions, which can also be found within the
lab assignments linked from the Geol 706 syllabus.
- Lateral Velocity Variation IEI set p. 244
- Statics & ray coverage
- Transmission tomography
- Radon transform
- Tomographic approximation
- Linearization, velocity variation
- Back projection
- Conjugate Operators PVI set p. 106
- Univariate Problems
- Noise, Deconvolution
- Conjugate Operators
- Matrices, Products
- Mappings, Interpolation
- Inversion, Tomography
- Deterministic Traveltimes -
- Finite-Difference Times
- Deterministic Ray Tracing
- Traveltime Optimization
- Nevada methods (not Monte-Carlo)
- First arrivals
- Reflection times
- Reflection coherency
- Multi-Offset Methods IEI set p. 160
- Seismic reflection experiment geometry
- Sorting and gathers
- Stacking and velocity analysis, IEI set p. 193
- Normal moveout (NMO)
- Dip moveout (DMO)
- Velocity analysis
- Slant stack (p-tau or array phasing), IEI set p. 212
- Signal/noise separation and enhancement, IEI set p. 236
- Multi-dimensional linear transforms
- Bayesian signal enhancement
- Conjugate Gradient Applications
- Model Fitting, PVI set p. 148
- Least Squares
- Iteration, Gradients
- Deghosting, Synthetics
- Reflection Imaging
- 3-d Kirchhoff migration, IEI set p. 228
- Finite-difference modeling
- Survey sinking
- Dip and wavenumber
- Double square root (DSR) equation
- Imaging condition
- F-K multi-offset migration
- Acoustic daylight imaging
- Cross-correlation and virtual sources
- Noise cross-correlation and group-velocity mapping
- Diffraction tomography
- Born approximation
- WKBJ & far-field approximations
- Inversion by back projection
- Approximations to elastic WE
- Operator aliasing
- Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM):
- Prestack partial migration
- NMO as a dip filter
- Fourier representation of DMO
- DMO algorithm
All of the codes used in the textbooks are accessible on-line
from the Stanford Exploration
We also have local copies of:
codes from PVI;
codes from GEE;
and HTML documentation on SEPlib.
For the Radon tomography example discussed in the lectures, the
Hestenes and Stiefel
iteration scripts are available
Fall 2008 Schedule
Geol 757 meets each Tues. and Thurs. 11:00-12:15 in LMR 355 except as noted below:
|Tuesday||August 26||First lecture, 11-12:30, LMR 355|
|Thursday||September 18||No lecture, Louie at NSF meeting, schedule makeup|
|Tuesday||30||No lecture, Holiday for Louie, schedule makeup|
|Thursday||October 2||Regular lecture, then Louie talk at Nevada Petroleum Soc. dinner meeting|
|Thursday||9||No lecture, Holiday for Louie, schedule makeup|
|Sun.-Thurs.||November 9-13||Class field trip to SEG meeting, Las Vegas|
|Thursday||27||Thanksgiving Day, no class, schedule makeup|
|Friday||December 9||Last class, evaluation at 11:00, lecture at 11:10|
|Thursday||11||PROJECTS DUE at end of final exam period- 7:30-9:30 AM|
Reference List to Inspire Projects