GEOL 757  Advanced Seismic Imaging and Tomography
Course Outline 
Instructor:
J. Louie, 217 LME, 7844219 
9:009:50 MWF LME415 
Fall, 2014 
Learning Objectives: This course completes after
Geol 706
``a coherent overview of the
whole field of data processing as it is used in petroleum exploration,''
(Claerbout, 1985) and is the most advanced course in seismic exploration at
the University of Nevada. The course goes beyond the two texts by including
introductions to tomography and finitedifference modeling developed by
Profs. Robert W. Clayton and John E. Vidale, and material on Kirchhoff
migration from Prof. John Louie.
Further objectives from Claerbout (1985):
``As it happens, waves are marvelously geometrical objects, and much can be learned with little mathematical analysis. But you should begin the book having previous familiarity with calculus, complex exponentials, and Fourier transformation.
``Your knowledge won't be complete if you don't know some opinions as well as the facts. You will be getting opinions as well as facts when I explain the discrepancies between theory and industrial practice, and when I explain what should work but doesn't seem to.
``Prospecting for oil begins with seismic soundings. The echoes are processed by computer into images that reveal much geological history. Worldwide, echo sounding and image making constitute about a fourbilliondollarperyear activity.
``... the skills developed in this book, computer implementations of concepts from physics, will always be of general utility.''
Schedule: 9:009:50 selected Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays in LME 415.
Selected Tuesdays and Thursdays 10:0010:50 in LME 417.
Lectures: Threefive 50minute lectures each week.
Texts:
 Jon Claerbout, 1992, Earth Soundings Analysis: Processing
versus Inversion (PVI), Blackwell, ISBN #0865422109, out of print.
Available from the instructor and in the DeLaMare Library.
Read the text
online at Stanford (or in DVI format for your LaTeX reader
here,
if you are logged into the Seismology Sun system).
Here is a 4 Mb PDF version built by the author in 2006.
 Jon Claerbout, 1985, Imaging the Earth's Interior (IEI), Blackwell,
ISBN #0865423040, out of print.
Available from the instructor and in the DeLaMare Library.
Read it
online at Stanford; or download your own copy in PDF format,
in parts through pages:
50;
100;
150;
200;
250;
300;
350;
400
(up to 1.7 Mb each).
 Jon Claerbout, 1999, Geophysical Estimation By Example (GEE), Free.
Available only
online from Stanford; some sections in in a directory
of PDF files on the Seismo server.
The lecture notes will be available prior to each lecture for you to read and annotate in class.
View the folder of PDF lecture notes.
The recorded lectures will be available as downloadable video files, a few days after each class.
View the folder of lecture video files.
URL: http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/757syll.html
Grading: Two Term Projects 100%
I encourage any student needing to request accommodations for a specific disability to please meet with me at your earliest convenience to ensure timely and appropriate accommodations.
Original, individual projects are required and should be selected in
consultation with the instructor.
Possible projects vary widely and can take the form of literature reviews,
theoretical demonstrations, application development, or data analysis.
For each project the student should turn in a five to ten page
project report, plus figures and an abstract in the form of an SEG Expanded Abstract, that properly reviews and
cites appropriate background literature, fully describes the methods, presents
the project results, and discusses their applicability and significance.
Project reports may also take the form of a 20minute SEG oral presentation.
See the instructor for project suggestions, which can also be found within the
lab assignments linked from the Geol 706 syllabus.
 Lateral Velocity Variation IEI set p. 244
 Statics & ray coverage
 Transmission tomography
 Applications
 Radon transform
 Tomographic approximation
 Linearization, velocity variation
 Back projection
 Conjugate Operators PVI set p. 106
 Univariate Problems
 Crosstalk
 Noise, Deconvolution
 Nonstationarity
 Conjugate Operators
 Matrices, Products
 Mappings, Interpolation
 Inversion, Tomography
 Deterministic Traveltimes 
on line
 FiniteDifference Times
 Deterministic Ray Tracing
 Traveltime Optimization
 Nevada methods (not MonteCarlo)
 First arrivals
 Reflection times
 Reflection coherency
 MultiOffset Methods IEI set p. 160
 Seismic reflection experiment geometry
 Sorting and gathers
 Stacking and velocity analysis, IEI set p. 193
 Normal moveout (NMO)
 Dip moveout (DMO)
 Velocity analysis
 Slant stack (ptau or array phasing), IEI set p. 212
 Signal/noise separation and enhancement, IEI set p. 236
 Coherence
 Multidimensional linear transforms
 Bayesian signal enhancement

 Conjugate Gradient Applications
 Model Fitting, PVI set p. 148
 Least Squares
 Iteration, Gradients
 Deghosting, Synthetics
 Reflection Imaging
 3d Kirchhoff migration, IEI set p. 228
 Finitedifference modeling
 Survey sinking
 Reciprocity
 Dip and wavenumber
 Double square root (DSR) equation
 Imaging condition
 FK multioffset migration
 Acoustic daylight imaging
 Crosscorrelation and virtual sources
 Noise crosscorrelation and groupvelocity mapping
 Diffraction tomography
 Born approximation
 WKBJ & farfield approximations
 Inversion by back projection
 Iteration
 Approximations to elastic WE
 Operator aliasing
 Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM):
 Prestack partial migration
 NMO as a dip filter
 Fourier representation of DMO
 DMO algorithm

All of the codes used in the textbooks are accessible online
from the Stanford Exploration
Project.
We also have local copies of:
codes from PVI;
codes from GEE;
and HTML documentation on SEPlib.
For the Radon tomography example discussed in the lectures, the
gradientstep,
steepestdescent,
conjugategradient, and
Hestenes and Stiefel
iteration scripts are available
Reference List to Inspire Projects