GEOL 706 - Geophysical Series, Filtering, and Introduction to Imaging

Course Outline Instructor: J. Louie, 217 LME, 784-4219 louie@seismo.unr.edu Fall, 2016

Learning Objectives: This course gives the fundamentals of time-series analysis for physical scientists, and then goes on with acoustic imaging examples to give the student practical experience in implementing these fundamentals. This is the first course of two at the graduate level in seismic imaging at the University of Nevada. The second course is Geol 757 Advanced Seismic Imaging and Tomography. Further objectives from Claerbout (1985):
``As it happens, waves are marvelously geometrical objects, and much can be learned with little mathematical analysis. But you should begin the book having previous familiarity with calculus, complex exponentials, and Fourier transformation.
``Your knowledge won't be complete if you don't know some opinions as well as the facts. You will be getting opinions as well as facts when I explain the discrepancies between theory and industrial practice, and when I explain what should work but doesn't seem to.
``Prospecting for oil begins with seismic soundings. The echoes are processed by computer into images that reveal much geological history. Worldwide, echo sounding and image making constitute about a four-billion-dollar-per-year activity.
``... the skills developed in this book, computer implementations of concepts from physics, will always be of general utility.''
We will start this class in 2016 with students viewing video lectures and attending a discussion and lab review session for one 75-minute period each week- Mondays 12:30-1:45. The schedule below has variances. In the middle of October, we will switch to attending lectures Mondays and Wednesdays from 2:30 to 3:45 in room 269 of the Laxalt Mineral Research (LMR) building, combined with the Geol 757 class. Lecture notes are on-line in PDF at:
http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/706/lectures/
Recorded lectures are on-line in M4V format at:
http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/706/recordings/
Lecture videos with captions are available from YouTube.

Lab solution sets are available as encrypted PDF files at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/706/solutions/. When you turn in a lab, I will give you the password that unlocks the solution set.

Grading: Lab Exercises 1, 2, 3, & 4 50%; Term Project 50%.

Part I: Geophysical Time Series Analysis

Introduction and Review
    Time Series
        Domains, Models
        Sampling, Z Transform
        Fourier Sums, Spectra
        Correlations
    Discrete Fourier Transform
        Nyquist, Comb Function
        Slow FT, Symmetries
        Fast FT, Doubling
   Lab 1 Z-transforms and spectra

Quasi-Analytic Analyses The Z Plane Integration, Smoothing Causality, Oscillation Rational Filters, Instability Minimum Phase, Classification Lab 2 Spectra and the Z-plane Filter Design Hilbert Transform, Analytic Signal Instantaneous Attributes Spectral Factorization, Causality Butterworth Filters Phase and Group Delay Lab 3 Minimum phase Resolution and Variance Uncertainty Principles Expectation, Tradeoffs Crosscorrelation, Coherence Central Limit Theorem Lab 4 Resolution and noise

See the Fall 2016 Geol 757 syllabus for topics in the second half of the semester
(plus corresponding lecture notes and videos)

Part II: Introduction to Seismic Imaging

Texts:

  1. Jon Claerbout, 1992, Earth Soundings Analysis: Processing versus Inversion (PVI), Blackwell, ISBN #0-86542-210-9, out of print. Available from the instructor and in the DeLaMare Library. Read the text on-line at Stanford. Here is a 4 Mb PDF version built by the author in 2006.

  2. Jon Claerbout, 1985, Imaging the Earth's Interior (IEI), Blackwell, ISBN #0-86542-304-0, out of print. Available from the instructor and in the DeLaMare Library. Read it on-line at Stanford; or download your own copy in PDF format, in parts through pages: 50; 100; 150; 200; 250; 300; 350; 400 (up to 1.7 Mb each).

  3. Jon Claerbout, 1999, Geophysical Estimation By Example (GEE), Free. Available only on-line from Stanford; some sections in in a directory of PDF files on the Seismo server.

The lecture notes are available for you to download.

In 2016, this course will give four lab assignments of one or two weeks duration each, during the first half of the semester. The Labs will include both take-home problem sets and exercises with applications that will help you understand the transforms and domains. All exercises can be completed on your own Linux or Mac computer (or Windows with Linux installed in Stanford Exploration Project. We also have local copies of: codes from PVI; codes from GEE; and HTML documentation on SEPlib.

Here is a list of and access to the 9 Lab assignments:

Lab 1 Z-transforms and spectra
Lab 2 Spectra and the Z-plane
Lab 3 Minimum phase
Lab 4 Resolution and noise
Lab 5 Java applications
Lab 6 2-d FFTs and migration
Lab 7 Finite differencing
Lab 8 Monochrome wave extrapolation
Lab 9 Time-domain downward continuation

In 2016, Geol 706 will require one term project, due at the end of the semester. An original, individual project is required and should be selected in consultation with the instructor. Possible projects vary widely and can take the form of literature reviews, theoretical demonstrations, application development, or data analysis. For each project the student should turn in a five to ten page project report, plus figures and an abstract in the form of an SEG Expanded Abstract (2015 volume as an example), that properly reviews and cites appropriate background literature, fully describes the methods, presents the project results, and discusses their applicability and significance. SEG's Instructions to Geophysics Authors is a good place to examine the standards for a professional paper. Project reports may also take the form of a 20-minute SEG oral presentation. See the instructor for project suggestions, which can also be found within the lab assignments linked from the Geol 706 syllabus. Geol 757 Advanced Seismic Imaging and Tomography will require two term projects.

Course Schedule

Monday		September 5	Labor Day holiday
Tuesday		September 6	Discussion rescheduled for 10:00-11:30 LMR 269
Monday		September 12	Instructor at campus research conference
Thursday	September 15	Discussion rescheduled for 10:00-11:30 LMR 269
Monday		September 19	Lab 1 DUE (2 weeks effort)
Monday		October 3	Instructor holiday- discussion rescheduled
Tuesday		October 4	Students have proposed and discussed a project with the instructor
Tuesday		October 4	Discussion rescheduled for 10:00-11:30 LMR 269; Lab 2 DUE (2 weeks effort)
Monday		October 17	Begin attending 2:30-3:45 MW Geol 757 lectures; Lab 3 DUE (2 weeks effort)
Monday		October 24	Lab 4 DUE (1 week effort)
Wednesday	December 21	Term Projects Due by 5:00 PM


Statement on Academic Dishonesty: ''Cheating, plagiarism or otherwise obtaining grades under false pretenses constitute academic dishonesty according to the code of this university. Academic dishonesty will not be tolerated and penalties can include canceling a student's enrollment without a grade, giving an F for the course or for the assignment. For more details, see the University of Nevada, Reno General Catalog.''

Statement of Disability Services: ''Any student with a disability needing academic adjustments or accommodations is requested to speak with the Disability Resource Center (Pennington Student Achievement Center, Suite 230) as soon as possible to arrange for appropriate accommodations.''

UNR Official Policy on Audio and Video recording in class: ''Surreptitious or covert video-taping of class or unauthorized audio recording of class is prohibited by law and by Board of Regents policy. This class may be videotaped or audio recorded only with the written permission of the instructor. In order to accommodate students with disabilities, some students may be given permission to record class lectures and discussions. Therefore, students should understand that their comments and questions during class may be recorded.'' But not without their prior knowledge!


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